Risk of confusion in pharmaceutical products
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Risk of confusion in pharmaceutical products

The risk of confusion among brands within the five classes of pharmaceutical products is primarily assessed based on the similarity between the brands in question, as well as the degree of notoriety and distinctiveness of each. According to doctrinal and jurisprudential criteria, this risk is evaluated from several perspectives: Phonetic Perspective: There may be similarities…

Updating shareholding composition data in Nicaragua
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Updating shareholding composition data in Nicaragua

In Nicaragua, the Directorate General of Revenue (DGI) plays a fundamental role in regulating and supervising fiscal activities, ensuring that taxpayers comply with their tax and formal obligations. In this regard, art. 103 of the Tax Code of the Republic of Nicaragua and its amendments (CTr) regulate the obligation of all taxpayers to register and…

Reforms to the administrative procedure for handling consumer complaints in Costa
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Reforms to the administrative procedure for handling consumer complaints in Costa

With the aim of expediting the handling of complaints, recent reforms have been implemented in the administrative procedure for consumer protection. Among the most notable changes is the transition to a predominantly written process, characterized by the elimination of the in-person conciliation hearing as well as the elimination of remote conciliation. With this change, the…

Transfer pricing studies in El Salvador
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Transfer pricing studies in El Salvador

Transfer Pricing rules are fundamentally based on the Arm’s Length Principle, articulated in art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. This principle is pivotal for bilateral and multilateral tax treaties to avoid double taxation, reiterated in point 1.6 of the OECD’s “Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations.” The Arm’s Length Principle…

What is open finance?
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What is open finance?

Open finance is a collaborative model in which various entities share consumer financial data through APIs, aiming to increase financial inclusion by offering products and services designed based on the shared information. Typically, participants in these environments include institutions such as banks, fintechs, insurance companies, and others that provide services in innovative ways compared to…

Advance rulings: New procedures, guidelines, and forms in Costa Rica
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Advance rulings: New procedures, guidelines, and forms in Costa Rica

Advance rulings are contained within international, regional, and national customs regulations and are a binding administrative act in which the Customs Authority determines the treatment that will be given to a specific commodity at the time of importation, concerning critical aspects of the process. In recent years, this pre-import procedure has gained significance as part…

Consortium Legal recognized as “Latin America: Professional Development Firm of the Year”
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Consortium Legal recognized as “Latin America: Professional Development Firm of the Year”

On the evening of Thursday, June 20, the Legal Benchmarking Group celebrated the Social Impact Awards 2024, where Consortium Legal was recognized as “Latin America: Professional Development Firm of the Year.” “Inclusion in this list highlights the significant progress law firms have made in building a more diverse and inclusive legal profession, as well as…

The SDGs from an energy perspective in Nicaragua
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The SDGs from an energy perspective in Nicaragua

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015 aim to combat extreme poverty and integrate and balance three essential dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These goals provide a valuable roadmap for formulating global policies. These Sustainable Development Goals allow for a global commitment to continuous economic growth and…

Tax Requirements in the implementation of commercial policies for discounts, rebates, and bonuses in Nicaragua
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Tax Requirements in the implementation of commercial policies for discounts, rebates, and bonuses in Nicaragua

Generally, most companies engaged in commercializing goods and providing services implement sales policies and commercial strategies that allow them to offer better prices or incentives to attract or retain customers. This enables them to better position themselves in the market, compete with other companies in the sector, increase their sales volume, and consequently promote a…

Key Aspects of the obligation to maintain inventory control records in El Salvador
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Key Aspects of the obligation to maintain inventory control records in El Salvador

Taxpayer obligations regarding inventory control are essential to ensure transparency and accuracy in the recording and valuation of tangible personal property. According to art. 142 of the Tax Code, this obligation applies to taxpayers who transfer tangible personal property, requiring them to maintain clear and detailed records of the movement, valuation, and description of their…

The complementarity rule in the sub-motives of misapplication of law and violation of law by omission within the cassation appeal. Part II
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The complementarity rule in the sub-motives of misapplication of law and violation of law by omission within the cassation appeal. Part II

In the previous article, I discussed the reasonableness of the complementarity rule between the cassation sub-motives (substantive motives) of Misapplication of Law and Violation of Law by Omission (non-application) as established by the Supreme Court of Justice, Civil Chamber. In essence, it has been established that for the admissibility of these sub-motives, when alleging the…

Global minimum tax and its considerations for Costa Rica
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Global minimum tax and its considerations for Costa Rica

The global minimum tax arises from the OECD initiative known as “Pillar 2”, whose purpose is to establish a minimum global taxation level of 15% for large multinationals in all countries where they are present, as well as from the Multilateral Convention (MLC) signed between 140 member and non-member countries of this organization, intending to…